Articles | Volume 8, issue 1
Hist. Geo Space. Sci., 8, 9–19, 2017
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Special issue: History of geophysical institutes and observatories
27 Mar 2017
Review article | 27 Mar 2017
Manuel Johnson's tide record at St. Helena
David E. Cartwright et al.
No articles found.
Philip L. Woodworth and John M. Vassie
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 4387–4396,Short summary
An electronic data set of tidal measurements at St. Helena in 1761 by Nevil Maskelyne is described. These data were first analysed by Cartwright in papers on changing tides, but his data files were never archived. The now newly digitised Maskelyne data have been reanalysed in order to obtain an updated impression of whether the tide has changed at that location in over two and a half centuries. Our main conclusion is that the major tidal constituent (M2) has changed little.
Richard D. Ray
Ocean Sci., 18, 1073–1079,Short summary
Seasonal variability of the M2 ocean tide can be detected at many ports. The physical mechanisms underlying seasonality, in the broadest terms, are astronomical, frictional–advective interactions, and climate processes. Some of these induce annual modulations, some semiannual, in amplitude, phase, or both. This note reviews how this occurs and gives an example from each broad category. Phase conventions and their relationship with causal mechanisms, as well as nomenclature, are also addressed.
David T. Pugh, Edmund Bridge, Robin Edwards, Peter Hogarth, Guy Westbrook, Philip L. Woodworth, and Gerard D. McCarthy
Ocean Sci., 17, 1623–1637,Short summary
Observations of sea level, taken manually by reading a tide pole, were carefully taken at a number of locations around Ireland in 1842 as part of the first land survey of Ireland. Our study investigates how useful this type of sea level observation is for understanding mean sea level and tidal change. We find that when carefully adjusted for seasonal, meteorological, and astronomical factors, these data can provide important insights into changing sea levels.
Philip L. Woodworth, J. A. Mattias Green, Richard D. Ray, and John M. Huthnance
Ocean Sci., 17, 809–818,Short summary
This special issue marks the 100th anniversary of the founding of the Liverpool Tidal Institute (LTI). The preface gives a history of the LTI founding and of its first two directors. It also gives an overview of LTI research on tides. Summaries are given of the 26 papers in the special issue. Their topics could be thought of as providing a continuation of the research first undertaken at the LTI. They provide an interesting snapshot of work on tides now being made by groups around the world.
Loren Carrere, Brian K. Arbic, Brian Dushaw, Gary Egbert, Svetlana Erofeeva, Florent Lyard, Richard D. Ray, Clément Ubelmann, Edward Zaron, Zhongxiang Zhao, Jay F. Shriver, Maarten Cornelis Buijsman, and Nicolas Picot
Ocean Sci., 17, 147–180,Short summary
Internal tides can have a signature of several centimeters at the ocean surface and need to be corrected from altimeter measurements. We present a detailed validation of several internal-tide models using existing satellite altimeter databases. The analysis focuses on the main diurnal and semidiurnal tidal constituents. Results show the interest of the methodology proposed, the quality of the internal-tide models tested and their positive contribution for estimating an accurate sea level.
Philip L. Woodworth
Hist. Geo Space. Sci., 11, 15–29,Short summary
The Liverpool Tidal Institute's (LTI) 100th anniversary was in 2019, and it acquired a reputation using tide prediction machines (TPMs). We describe the principles of a TPM, how many were made and Doodson's method to determine harmonic constants from tidal data to predict the tides. Although only three TPMs were used at the LTI, Doodson oversaw the design and manufacture of several others. We show how the UK, and Doodson particularly, played a central role in this area of science.
Philip L. Woodworth
Ocean Sci., 15, 431–442,Short summary
This is the first investigation of the worldwide distribution of the degree-3 M1 ocean tide using over 800 tide gauge records and a global tide model. M1 is confirmed to have a geographical variation in the Atlantic and other basins consistent with the suggestion of Platzman and Cartwright that M1 is generated through the spatial and temporal overlap of M1 in the tidal potential and one (or at least a small number of) diurnal ocean normal mode(s).
Denise Smythe-Wright, W. John Gould, Trevor J. McDougall, Stefania Sparnocchia, and Philip L. Woodworth
Hist. Geo Space. Sci., 10, 137–150,Short summary
From the early work of Prince Albert I of Monaco, the first president of the International Association for the Physical Sciences of the Oceans, to today, the Association has promoted and supported international research and cross-cutting activities in ocean sciences, building on the work of the many far-sighted scientists who, over the last century, have addressed seemingly intractable problems. This paper describes key events in IAPSO's history and the roles played by the scientists involved.
Philip L. Woodworth and Angela Hibbert
Ocean Sci., 14, 711–730,Short summary
30 years of BPR data at Drake Passage are used to investigate the Mf, Mm and Mt long-period tides. Amplitudes of Mf and Mt, and all phase lags, vary over the nodal cycle as in the equilibrium tide. Mm amplitude is almost constant, and so inconsistent at 3σ from anticipation due to energetic non-tidal variability. Most findings agree with a modern ocean tide model. BPR records are superior to conventional tide gauge data in this work due to lower proportion of non-tidal variability.
Philip L. Woodworth and Glen H. Rowe
Hist. Geo Space. Sci., 9, 85–103,Short summary
This paper discusses the quality of James Cook’s tidal measurements during the voyage of the Endeavour. We conclude that his measurements were accurate in general to about 0.5 ft in height and 30 min in time. They were good enough (or unique enough) to be included in global compilations of tidal information in the 18th century and were used in the 19th century in the construction of the first worldwide tidal atlases. They support Cook’s reputation as a good observer of the environment.
Lionel Zawadzki, Michaël Ablain, Loren Carrere, Richard D. Ray, Nikita P. Zelensky, Florent Lyard, Amandine Guillot, and Nicolas Picot
Ocean Sci. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
Mean sea level (MSL) is a prominent indicator of climatic change, and is therefore of great scientific and societal interest. Since the beginning of the altimeter mission TOPEX/Poseidon and its successors Jason-1 and Jason-2, MSL products became essential for climate applications. Since 1995, a suspicious signal is apparent in the corresponding MSL record. Since 2010, scientific teams have been working on reducing this error. This paper assesses, characterizes and quantifies this reduction.
This paper discusses an historical record of the ocean tide made by the astronomer Manuel Johnson (a future President of the Royal Astronomical Society) at St. Helena in 1826–27. It describes how the measurements were made using a tide gauge of an unusual design, which recorded the heights of the high and low tides well, although information on their times were not so accurate. Johnson’s work is not well known. One objective of the present research was to make his measurements more accessible.
This paper discusses an historical record of the ocean tide made by the astronomer Manuel...