Articles | Volume 10, issue 1
Hist. Geo Space. Sci., 10, 137–150, 2019
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
16 Apr 2019
Review article | 16 Apr 2019
IAPSO: tales from the ocean frontier
Denise Smythe-Wright et al.
No articles found.
William John Gould
Hist. Geo Space. Sci. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for HGSSShort summary
The paper compares the historical context, organisation, personnel, conduct and scientific innovation of the voyages of HMS Challenger (1872–6) and SMS Gazelle (1874–6). Though the expeditions were in many regards similar, that of Challenger became famous and is regarded as marking the start of global marine science while the Gazelle voyage remains almost unknown. Why? A surprising factor may be what we now know as “Health and Safety” issues.
David T. Pugh, Edmund Bridge, Robin Edwards, Peter Hogarth, Guy Westbrook, Philip L. Woodworth, and Gerard D. McCarthy
Ocean Sci., 17, 1623–1637,Short summary
Observations of sea level, taken manually by reading a tide pole, were carefully taken at a number of locations around Ireland in 1842 as part of the first land survey of Ireland. Our study investigates how useful this type of sea level observation is for understanding mean sea level and tidal change. We find that when carefully adjusted for seasonal, meteorological, and astronomical factors, these data can provide important insights into changing sea levels.
Trevor J. McDougall, Paul M. Barker, Ryan M. Holmes, Rich Pawlowicz, Stephen M. Griffies, and Paul J. Durack
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 6445–6466,Short summary
We show that the way that the air–sea heat flux is treated in ocean models means that the model's temperature variable should be interpreted as being Conservative Temperature, irrespective of whether the equation of state used in an ocean model is EOS-80 or TEOS-10.
Philip L. Woodworth, J. A. Mattias Green, Richard D. Ray, and John M. Huthnance
Ocean Sci., 17, 809–818,Short summary
This special issue marks the 100th anniversary of the founding of the Liverpool Tidal Institute (LTI). The preface gives a history of the LTI founding and of its first two directors. It also gives an overview of LTI research on tides. Summaries are given of the 26 papers in the special issue. Their topics could be thought of as providing a continuation of the research first undertaken at the LTI. They provide an interesting snapshot of work on tides now being made by groups around the world.
Philip L. Woodworth
Hist. Geo Space. Sci., 11, 15–29,Short summary
The Liverpool Tidal Institute's (LTI) 100th anniversary was in 2019, and it acquired a reputation using tide prediction machines (TPMs). We describe the principles of a TPM, how many were made and Doodson's method to determine harmonic constants from tidal data to predict the tides. Although only three TPMs were used at the LTI, Doodson oversaw the design and manufacture of several others. We show how the UK, and Doodson particularly, played a central role in this area of science.
Davide Guerra, Katrin Schroeder, Mireno Borghini, Elisa Camatti, Marco Pansera, Anna Schroeder, Stefania Sparnocchia, and Jacopo Chiggiato
Ocean Sci., 15, 631–649,Short summary
Diel vertical migration (DVM) is a survival strategy adopted by zooplankton that was investigated in the Corsica Channel using acoustic data from April 2014 to November 2016. The principal aim of the study is to characterize migratory patterns and biomass temporal evolution along the water column. In addition, net samples were taken during summer 2015 at the same location. During the investigated period, zooplankton had a well-defined daily and seasonal cycle, with peaks in late winter.
Philip L. Woodworth
Ocean Sci., 15, 431–442,Short summary
This is the first investigation of the worldwide distribution of the degree-3 M1 ocean tide using over 800 tide gauge records and a global tide model. M1 is confirmed to have a geographical variation in the Atlantic and other basins consistent with the suggestion of Platzman and Cartwright that M1 is generated through the spatial and temporal overlap of M1 in the tidal potential and one (or at least a small number of) diurnal ocean normal mode(s).
Philip L. Woodworth and Angela Hibbert
Ocean Sci., 14, 711–730,Short summary
30 years of BPR data at Drake Passage are used to investigate the Mf, Mm and Mt long-period tides. Amplitudes of Mf and Mt, and all phase lags, vary over the nodal cycle as in the equilibrium tide. Mm amplitude is almost constant, and so inconsistent at 3σ from anticipation due to energetic non-tidal variability. Most findings agree with a modern ocean tide model. BPR records are superior to conventional tide gauge data in this work due to lower proportion of non-tidal variability.
Philip L. Woodworth and Glen H. Rowe
Hist. Geo Space. Sci., 9, 85–103,Short summary
This paper discusses the quality of James Cook’s tidal measurements during the voyage of the Endeavour. We conclude that his measurements were accurate in general to about 0.5 ft in height and 30 min in time. They were good enough (or unique enough) to be included in global compilations of tidal information in the 18th century and were used in the 19th century in the construction of the first worldwide tidal atlases. They support Cook’s reputation as a good observer of the environment.
David E. Cartwright, Philip L. Woodworth, and Richard D. Ray
Hist. Geo Space. Sci., 8, 9–19,Short summary
This paper discusses an historical record of the ocean tide made by the astronomer Manuel Johnson (a future President of the Royal Astronomical Society) at St. Helena in 1826–27. It describes how the measurements were made using a tide gauge of an unusual design, which recorded the heights of the high and low tides well, although information on their times were not so accurate. Johnson’s work is not well known. One objective of the present research was to make his measurements more accessible.
Stephen M. Griffies, Gokhan Danabasoglu, Paul J. Durack, Alistair J. Adcroft, V. Balaji, Claus W. Böning, Eric P. Chassignet, Enrique Curchitser, Julie Deshayes, Helge Drange, Baylor Fox-Kemper, Peter J. Gleckler, Jonathan M. Gregory, Helmuth Haak, Robert W. Hallberg, Patrick Heimbach, Helene T. Hewitt, David M. Holland, Tatiana Ilyina, Johann H. Jungclaus, Yoshiki Komuro, John P. Krasting, William G. Large, Simon J. Marsland, Simona Masina, Trevor J. McDougall, A. J. George Nurser, James C. Orr, Anna Pirani, Fangli Qiao, Ronald J. Stouffer, Karl E. Taylor, Anne Marie Treguier, Hiroyuki Tsujino, Petteri Uotila, Maria Valdivieso, Qiang Wang, Michael Winton, and Stephen G. Yeager
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 3231–3296,Short summary
The Ocean Model Intercomparison Project (OMIP) aims to provide a framework for evaluating, understanding, and improving the ocean and sea-ice components of global climate and earth system models contributing to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6). This document defines OMIP and details a protocol both for simulating global ocean/sea-ice models and for analysing their output.
M. Borghini, H. Bryden, K. Schroeder, S. Sparnocchia, and A. Vetrano
Ocean Sci., 10, 693–700,
A. Olita, S. Sparnocchia, S. Cusí, L. Fazioli, R. Sorgente, J. Tintoré, and A. Ribotti
Ocean Sci., 10, 657–666,
From the early work of Prince Albert I of Monaco, the first president of the International Association for the Physical Sciences of the Oceans, to today, the Association has promoted and supported international research and cross-cutting activities in ocean sciences, building on the work of the many far-sighted scientists who, over the last century, have addressed seemingly intractable problems. This paper describes key events in IAPSO's history and the roles played by the scientists involved.
From the early work of Prince Albert I of Monaco, the first president of the International...