30 Aug 2023
 | 30 Aug 2023
Status: a revised version of this preprint is currently under review for the journal HGSS.

Comparing the evolution of ESA versus NASA technology transfer approach: market and public demand drivers

Giorgio Petroni, Benedetta Pini, Serena Filippelli, and Alberto Petroni

Abstract. The growth of space activities has experienced rapid expansion in the last twenty years, largely driven by the transfer of technology. This process has had not only economic and social effects but also important political and military implications.

The primary entities responsible for sharing scientific and technological knowledge have been the prominent space agencies. This article seeks to compare the approaches developed by NASA and ESA throughout the years. The comparison reveals significant differences between the two agencies in terms of their goals and the methods they employ to achieve them. These disparities can even be traced back to the legislation that established each respective agency.

Giorgio Petroni et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on hgss-2023-8', Anonymous Referee #1, 09 Sep 2023
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Alberto Petroni, 11 Oct 2023
    • AC3: 'Reply on RC1', Alberto Petroni, 05 Dec 2023
  • CC1: 'Comment on hgss-2023-8', Chiara Verbano, 30 Oct 2023
    • AC2: 'Reply on CC1', Alberto Petroni, 05 Dec 2023
  • RC2: 'General review of the manuscript', Pierre Potin, 10 Nov 2023

Giorgio Petroni et al.

Giorgio Petroni et al.


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Short summary
ESA and NASA have distinct technology transfer approaches, including differences in organizational structure, funding mechanisms, intellectual property strategies, international collaborations, business incubation centers, and commercialization focus. However, both agencies share the common goals of maximizing the societal and economic impact of space technologies and fostering innovation through technology transfer.