Louis Quéno, Charles Fierz, Alec van Herwijnen, Dylan Longridge, and Nander Wever
The Cryosphere, 14, 3449–3464, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-14-3449-2020,https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-14-3449-2020, 2020
Deep ice layers may form in the snowpack due to preferential water flow with impacts on the snowpack mechanical, hydrological and thermodynamical properties. We studied their formation and evolution at a high-altitude alpine site, combining a comprehensive observation dataset at a daily frequency (with traditional snowpack observations, penetration resistance and radar measurements) and detailed snowpack modeling, including a new parameterization of ice formation in the 1-D SNOWPACK model.
The glaciers on Kilimanjaro summit are like sample spots of the climate in the tropical mid-troposphere. Measurements of air temperature, air humidity, and precipitation with automated weather stations show that the differences in these meteorological elements between two altitudes (~ 5600 and ~ 5900 m) vary significantly over the day and the seasons, in concert with airflow dynamics around the mountain. Knowledge of these variations will improve atmosphere and cryosphere models.
Neige Calonne, Bettina Richter, Henning Löwe, Cecilia Cetti, Judith ter Schure, Alec Van Herwijnen, Charles Fierz, Matthias Jaggi, and Martin Schneebeli
The Cryosphere, 14, 1829–1848, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-14-1829-2020,https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-14-1829-2020, 2020
During winter 2015–2016, the standard program to monitor the structure and stability of the snowpack at Weissflujoch, Swiss Alps, was complemented by additional measurements to compare between various traditional and newly developed techniques. Snow micro-penetrometer measurements allowed monitoring of the evolution of the snowpack's internal structure at a daily resolution throughout the winter. We show the potential of such high-resolution data for detailed evaluations of snowpack models.
Michael Zemp, Matthias Huss, Nicolas Eckert, Emmanuel Thibert, Frank Paul, Samuel U. Nussbaumer, and Isabelle Gärtner-Roer
The Cryosphere, 14, 1043–1050, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-14-1043-2020,https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-14-1043-2020, 2020
Comprehensive assessments of global glacier mass changes have been published at multi-annual intervals, typically in IPCC reports. For the years in between, we present an approach to infer timely but preliminary estimates of global-scale glacier mass changes from glaciological observations. These ad hoc estimates for 2017/18 indicate that annual glacier contributions to sea-level rise exceeded 1 mm sea-level equivalent, which corresponds to more than a quarter of the currently observed rise.
Extensive field observations were conducted in the Upper Susitna basin in central Alaska in 2012–2014. This paper describes the weather, glacier mass balance, snow cover, and soils of the basin. We found that temperatures over the glacier are cooler than over land at the same elevation. The glaciers have been losing mass faster in recent years than in the 1980s. Measurements of glacier mass change with traditional methods closely matched radar measurements.
Cécile B. Ménard, Richard Essery, Alan Barr, Paul Bartlett, Jeff Derry, Marie Dumont, Charles Fierz, Hyungjun Kim, Anna Kontu, Yves Lejeune, Danny Marks, Masashi Niwano, Mark Raleigh, Libo Wang, and Nander Wever
This paper describes long-term meteorological and evaluation datasets from 10 reference sites for use in snow modelling. We demonstrate how data sharing is crucial to the identification of errors and how the publication of these datasets contributes to good practice, consistency, and reproducibility in geosciences. The ease of use, availability, and quality of the datasets will help model developers quantify and reduce model uncertainties and errors.
Gerhard Krinner, Chris Derksen, Richard Essery, Mark Flanner, Stefan Hagemann, Martyn Clark, Alex Hall, Helmut Rott, Claire Brutel-Vuilmet, Hyungjun Kim, Cécile B. Ménard, Lawrence Mudryk, Chad Thackeray, Libo Wang, Gabriele Arduini, Gianpaolo Balsamo, Paul Bartlett, Julia Boike, Aaron Boone, Frédérique Chéruy, Jeanne Colin, Matthias Cuntz, Yongjiu Dai, Bertrand Decharme, Jeff Derry, Agnès Ducharne, Emanuel Dutra, Xing Fang, Charles Fierz, Josephine Ghattas, Yeugeniy Gusev, Vanessa Haverd, Anna Kontu, Matthieu Lafaysse, Rachel Law, Dave Lawrence, Weiping Li, Thomas Marke, Danny Marks, Martin Ménégoz, Olga Nasonova, Tomoko Nitta, Masashi Niwano, John Pomeroy, Mark S. Raleigh, Gerd Schaedler, Vladimir Semenov, Tanya G. Smirnova, Tobias Stacke, Ulrich Strasser, Sean Svenson, Dmitry Turkov, Tao Wang, Nander Wever, Hua Yuan, Wenyan Zhou, and Dan Zhu
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 5027–5049, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-11-5027-2018,https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-11-5027-2018, 2018
This paper provides an overview of a coordinated international experiment to determine the strengths and weaknesses in how climate models treat snow. The models will be assessed at point locations using high-quality reference measurements and globally using satellite-derived datasets. How well climate models simulate snow-related processes is important because changing snow cover is an important part of the global climate system and provides an important freshwater resource for human use.
Ladina Steiner, Michael Meindl, Charles Fierz, and Alain Geiger
The Cryosphere, 12, 3161–3175, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-12-3161-2018,https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-12-3161-2018, 2018
The amount of water stored in snow cover is of high importance for flood risks, climate change, and early-warning systems. We evaluate the potential of using GPS to estimate the stored water. We use GPS antennas buried underneath the snowpack and develop a model based on the path elongation of the GPS signals while propagating through the snowpack. The method works well over full seasons, including melt periods. Results correspond within 10 % to the state-of-the-art reference data.
Christian Gabriel Sommer, Nander Wever, Charles Fierz, and Michael Lehning
The Cryosphere, 12, 2923–2939, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-12-2923-2018,https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-12-2923-2018, 2018
Wind packing is how wind produces hard crusts at the surface of the snowpack. This is relevant for the local mass balance in polar regions. However, not much is known about this process and it is difficult to capture its high spatial and temporal variability. A wind-packing event was measured in Antarctica. It could be quantified how drifting snow leads to wind packing and generates barchan dunes. The documentation of these deposition dynamics is an important step in understanding polar snow.
Christoph Klug, Erik Bollmann, Stephan Peter Galos, Lindsey Nicholson, Rainer Prinz, Lorenzo Rieg, Rudolf Sailer, Johann Stötter, and Georg Kaser
The Cryosphere, 12, 833–849, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-12-833-2018,https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-12-833-2018, 2018
This study presents a reanalysis of the glacier mass balance record at Hintereisferner, Austria, for the period 2001 to 2011. We provide a year-by-year comparison of glaciological and geodetic mass balances obtained from annual airborne laser scanning data. After applying a series of corrections, a comparison of the methods reveals major differences for certain years. We thoroughly discuss the origin of these discrepancies and implications for future glaciological mass balance measurements.
Ulrich Strasser, Thomas Marke, Ludwig Braun, Heidi Escher-Vetter, Irmgard Juen, Michael Kuhn, Fabien Maussion, Christoph Mayer, Lindsey Nicholson, Klaus Niedertscheider, Rudolf Sailer, Johann Stötter, Markus Weber, and Georg Kaser
A hydrometeorological and glaciological data set is presented with recordings from several research sites in the Rofental (1891–3772 m a.s.l., Ötztal Alps, Austria). The data sets are spanning 150 years and represent a unique pool of high mountain observations, enabling combined research of atmospheric, cryospheric and hydrological processes in complex terrain, and the development of state-of-the-art hydroclimatological and glacier mass balance models.
Torbjørn Ims Østby, Thomas Vikhamar Schuler, Jon Ove Hagen, Regine Hock, Jack Kohler, and Carleen H. Reijmer
The Cryosphere, 11, 191–215, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-11-191-2017,https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-11-191-2017, 2017
We present modelled climatic mass balance for all glaciers in Svalbard for the period 1957–2014 at 1 km resolution using a coupled surface energy balance and snowpack model, thereby closing temporal and spatial gaps in direct and geodetic mass balance estimates.
Supporting previous studies, our results indicate increased mass loss over the period.
A detailed analysis of the involved energy fluxes reveals that increased mass loss is caused by atmospheric warming further amplified by feedbacks.
Nander Wever, Sebastian Würzer, Charles Fierz, and Michael Lehning
The Cryosphere, 10, 2731–2744, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-10-2731-2016,https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-10-2731-2016, 2016
The study presents a dual domain approach to simulate liquid water flow in snow using the 1-D physics based snow cover model SNOWPACK. In this approach, the pore space is separated into a part for matrix flow and a part that represents preferential flow. Using this approach, water can percolate sub-freezing snow and form dense (ice) layers. A comparison with snow pits shows that some of the observed ice layers were reproduced by the model while others remain challenging to simulate.
Working on the interface of water availability and water demand in a small Andean catchment, peasants’ reports on detrimental precipitation changes during the last decades have attracted our scientific interest. We could not confirm any precipitation trends in this period with nearby precipitation records, but we found precipitation patterns that very likely pose challenges for rain-fed farming – in addition to potential other stresses by environmental and sociopolitical changes.
Mariano H. Masiokas, Duncan A. Christie, Carlos Le Quesne, Pierre Pitte, Lucas Ruiz, Ricardo Villalba, Brian H. Luckman, Etienne Berthier, Samuel U. Nussbaumer, Álvaro González-Reyes, James McPhee, and Gonzalo Barcaza
The Cryosphere, 10, 927–940, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-10-927-2016,https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-10-927-2016, 2016
Glacier Echaurren Norte (ECH, 34° S) has the longest (> 35 yrs) mass-balance record in South America. A minimal model that explains 78 % of the variance in the ECH annual record identifies precipitation as the most important forcing. A regional streamflow series allows for extending the ECH annual record back to 1909 and shows a clear cumulative ice-mass loss. Similarities with documented glacier advances and other shorter mass-balance series suggest the ECH reconstruction is regionally representative.
Geological evidence for past changes in glacier length provides a useful source of information about pre-historic climate change. We have used glacier modelling to show that air temperature reductions of −5 to −7 °C, relative to present, are required to simulate the glacial extent in the North Island, New Zealand, during the last ice age (approx. 20000 years ago). Our results provide data to assess climate model simulations, with the aim of determining the drivers of past natural climate change.
Martin Proksch, Nick Rutter, Charles Fierz, and Martin Schneebeli
The Cryosphere, 10, 371–384, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-10-371-2016,https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-10-371-2016, 2016
Density is a fundamental property of porous media such as snow. During the MicroSnow Davos 2014 workshop, different approaches (box-, wedge- and cylinder-type density cutters, micro-computed tomography) to measure snow density were applied in a controlled laboratory environment and in the field. In general, results suggest that snow densities measured by different methods agree within 9 %. However, the density profiles resolved by the measurement methods differed considerably.
R. Prinz, L. I. Nicholson, T. Mölg, W. Gurgiser, and G. Kaser
The Cryosphere, 10, 133–148, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-10-133-2016,https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-10-133-2016, 2016
Lewis Glacier has lost > 80 % of its extent since the late 19th century. A sensitivity study using a process-based model assigns this shrinking to decreased atmospheric moisture without increasing air temperatures required. The glacier retreat implies a distinctly different coupling between the glacier's surface-air layer and its surrounding boundary layer, underlining the difficulty of deriving palaeoclimates for larger glacier extents on the basis of modern measurements of small glaciers.
N. Wever, L. Schmid, A. Heilig, O. Eisen, C. Fierz, and M. Lehning
The Cryosphere, 9, 2271–2293, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-9-2271-2015,https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-9-2271-2015, 2015
A verification of the physics based SNOWPACK model with field observations showed that typical snowpack properties like density and temperature are adequately simulated. Also two water transport schemes were verified, showing that although Richards equation improves snowpack runoff and several aspects of the internal snowpack structure, the bucket scheme appeared to have a higher agreement with the snow microstructure. The choice of water transport scheme may depend on the intended application.
We examine the climatic forcing of glacier expansion in the mid-Holocene (MH) by evaluating modelled glacier equilibrium line altitude (ELA) and climate conditions during the MH compared with pre-industrial (PI) time in the mid-latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere. Glaciers in both analysed regions have an ELA that is 15-33m lower than the PI during the MH. We postulate that the modelled ELA changes may help to explain larger glacier extents observed in the mid-Holocene in both regions.
F. Maussion, W. Gurgiser, M. Großhauser, G. Kaser, and B. Marzeion
The Cryosphere, 9, 1663–1683, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-9-1663-2015,https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-9-1663-2015, 2015
Using a newly developed open-source tool, we downscale the glacier surface energy and mass balance fluxes at Shallap Glacier. This allows an unprecedented quantification of the ENSO influence on a tropical glacier at climatological time scales (1980-2013). We find a stronger and steadier anti-correlation between Pacific sea-surface temperature (SST) and glacier mass balance than previously reported and provide keys to understand its mechanism.
In Patagonia at least 16 moraine-dammed lakes have failed in historical time. Commonly failed lakes were in contact with glaciers at the time of failure and had moderate (≥ 8°) to steep (≥15°) outlet slopes. Seven failed lakes are located in the Baker Basin, Chilean Patagonia, were hydro-electric generation plants are planned. We assessed the outburst susceptibility of moraine-dammed lakes in the Baker Basin and identified 28 lakes with high or very high outburst susceptibility.
We simulated a severe rain-on-snow event in the Swiss Alps in October 2011 with a detailed multi-layer snow cover model. We found a strong modulating effect of the incoming rainfall signal by the snow cover. Initially, water from both rainfall and snow melt was absorbed by the snowpack. But once the snowpack released the stored water, simulated outflow rates exceeded rainfall and snow melt rates. The simulations suggest that structural snowpack changes enhanced the outflow during this event.
M. Zemp, E. Thibert, M. Huss, D. Stumm, C. Rolstad Denby, C. Nuth, S. U. Nussbaumer, G. Moholdt, A. Mercer, C. Mayer, P. C. Joerg, P. Jansson, B. Hynek, A. Fischer, H. Escher-Vetter, H. Elvehøy, and L. M. Andreassen
The Cryosphere, 7, 1227–1245, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-7-1227-2013,https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-7-1227-2013, 2013
Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777–1855) was one of the most eminent scientists of all time. He was born in Brunswick, and from 1807 until his death, he was director of the Göttingen Astronomical Observatory, where he made world-famous and lasting contributions. In his honour, and to preserve his memory, the Gauss Society was founded in Göttingen in 1962. The present paper aims to give nonspecialists a brief introduction into the life and works of Gauss and a brief history of the Gauss Society.
This paper outlines the establishment of the Liverpool Tidal Institute in 1919. There is a particular focus on early patrons and supporters, in the context of both previous tidal research on the accuracy of predictions and debates about the involvement of state actors in science at the end of the First World War. It shows that industrial support was crucial to the early tidal institute, which adds to debates about patronage in the history of modern physical oceanography in Britain and beyond.
The German Geophysical Society was founded in 1922 as the Deutsche Seismologische Vereinigung. One of the 24 founders of this society was Karl Friedrich Almstedt. Born in 1891 and deceased in 1964, Almstedt represents a generation of academics and scientists who grew up during the decline of the European empires, experiencing the devastations of the two World Wars and the cruelties of the Nazi era as well as the resurrection of academic and cultural life in post-war Germany.
The Széchenyi István Geophysical Observatory, also known as the Nagycenk Geophysical Observatory (NCK), is the only measurement site in Hungary where atmospheric electricity (AE) measurements have been made continuously since 1961. Quasi-continuous records of electrical potential gradient (PG) and Schumann resonances (SRs) from NCK are among the longest time series of their kind in Europe. This paper commemorates the efforts of people who established and managed AE measurements at NCK.
The International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG) was established in 1919 to promote activities of international scientific societies dealing with geodesy, terrestrial magnetism and electricity, meteorology, physical oceanography, seismology, volcanology, and hydrology. This paper first introduces IUGG, presenting its current structure, partners, and various activities before the origin and earlier development of the Union is described covering the period between the two World Wars.
Written for the centennial anniversary of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG), this paper documents the activities of the Union at the beginning of the 21st century. IUGG added an eighth association on cryospheric sciences, introduced new categories of affiliate and honorary memberships, new grants, science education, and recognition programs, and formed new commissions on climatic and environmental change, data and information, planetary sciences, and history.
From the early work of Prince Albert I of Monaco, the first president of the International Association for the Physical Sciences of the Oceans, to today, the Association has promoted and supported international research and cross-cutting activities in ocean sciences, building on the work of the many far-sighted scientists who, over the last century, have addressed seemingly intractable problems. This paper describes key events in IAPSO's history and the roles played by the scientists involved.
An overview of the history of international organizations for seismological cooperation leading to the current International Association of Seismology and Physics of the Earth’s Interior (IASPEI) is presented. Achievements and contributions of IASPEI over the past century are noted. The current organizational structure and future of IASPEI is discussed.
This paper summarises how IAVCEI was formed 100 years ago; the context in which it formed; its governance structure and how this has changed; the nature of its conferences; the initiation and development of its flagship journal, the Bulletin of Volcanology; and its evolution into an inclusive, representative learned association which welcomes scientists from all countries to participate in its research and training conferences and workshops and in its governance.
In this paper a brief summary will be given of the historical development of geomagnetism as a science in southern Africa and particularly the role played by Hermanus Magnetic Observatory in this regard. From a very modest beginning in 1841 as a recording station at the Cape of Good Hope Hermanus Magnetic Observatory is today part of the South African National Space Agency (SANSA), where its geomagnetic field data are extensively used in international research projects with a wide range.
This paper analyses the development of international geoscientific unions, and discusses their past and present role in and their added value to the promotion of geoscience in the complicated arena of existing and emerging intergovernmental organisations and professional societies of geoscientists.
In this article we present the history of the Jagiellonian University School of Tourism and highlights its role in the development of tourism research and education in Europe. The school played an important role in the development of tourism geography and education in Europe, especially in Poland. This paper fills a gap in our knowledge on the history of science and education, especially tourism research in central Europe at this time.
The article concentrates on the German role in the establishment of the European Incoherent Scatter Radar (EISCAT). It outlines the scientific motivation of the Max Planck Society for participating on behalf of two of its institutes. Special attention is given to the augmentation of the scientific scope of the radar by the installation of an ionospheric heater facility. The first years of EISCAT operation are summarized from the personal viewpoint of the author.
Colonial era Colaba-Alibag MO, operational since 1841, contains valuable information on geomagnetic phenomena of different periodicities. First Indian director Nanabhoy Moos compiled Colaba data and interpreted them radically differently, echoing current understanding. Moos rejected terrestrial origins for magnetic storms and tried to bind together meteorological, seismological and geomagnetic realms. Colaba instruments have historical and scientific significance. Move to Alibag was incidental.
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The International Association of Cryospheric Sciences (IACS) became the eighth and most recent association of IUGG in July 2007. IACS was launched in recognition of the importance of the cryosphere, particularly at a time of significant global change. The forbears of IACS, however, start with the 1894 Commission Internationale des Glaciers (CIG). This paper traces the transition from CIG to IACS; scientific objectives that drove activities and changes, and key events and individuals involved.
The International Association of Cryospheric Sciences (IACS) became the eighth and most recent...